Simple solutions to complex problems are seldom useful, but it is an irony that fairly elementary explanations often hold the key to complex economic outcomes. For example, inflation is solely caused by an excess supply of money, and economic growth can only occur through greater efficiencies. But drawing easy prescriptions from these truths is frustrating.
One example is that economic outcomes for individuals are largely determined by the rate at which they discount the future. More simply, the world appears to treat more kindly those who value the future more highly than the present. It has always been that way.
As a thought experiment, suppose we have two teenage girls of equal talent and opportunity. Both have dreams and hopes for the future along with immediate interests. This is normal fare, that our abundant society encourages. Now we cannot know directly how much each girl values the future. We can only rely on observation of their actions, or what economists refer to as their "revealed preference." That is, by watching what they do.
The girl who values the future more highly will defer some current pleasures to do things that improve her prospects. She will study more, take harder classes and participate in sports and social activities that ready her to become an adult. The girl who cares relatively more about the present than the future will discomfit herself less in the short run for a long run gain which she values less. Of course how much the future matters changes with time, experience and how much you love people who might be living in the future when you are not.
A long history of morality has developed across cultures to encourage a lessened discounting of the future. One reasonable explanation for this is that it is quite easy to do things when young and inexperienced that severely limit one's long run options.
The distinction between the girl that values the future greatly and the one who does not is more than just a tautological exercise. If you were to loan money to these girls, to whom would you assign more risk and thus a higher interest rate? A synonym for an interest rate is a discount rate, and so it comes full circle. The more you value the future, the more highly you are apt to be valued by the economy, and vice versa. It is worth noting that all these valuations are fair, just not equal. Only a child thinks "equal" and "fair" are the same thing.
The policy press prescription for all this remains vexing of course. Some of the best new research on poverty suggests that the absence of hope (or low future valuation) perversely reinforces behaviors that ensure a less hopeful future. This research is still new, but if true suggests we re-explore some ancient instructions for growing up.
And that is what fathers are for.